In growth theory, changes in output (GDP) are explained through changes of production factors, i.e. changes in labour or capital. Economists consider the residual, i.e. the part of changes in output that one cannot explain with changes of production factors, as total factor productivity (TFP) or technological change. In contrast to labour productivity, that relates output only to labour, total factor productivity states how efficiently an economy uses all its production factors. Continue reading What is Total Factor Productivity (TFP)?